The most important part of project planning is the nine knowledge areas: integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications, risk and procurement. “Project integration management involves coordinating all of the other project management knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycle. This integration ensures that all the elements of a project come together at the right times to complete a project successfully” (Schwalbe, 2004, p.116).
“Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It insure that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and what processes the project team will use to produce them.“ (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 169)
“Project time management, simply defied involves the process required to ensure timely completion of a project. Achieving timely completion of a project, however is by no means simple” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 203).
“Project cost management includes the process required to ensure that a project team completes a project within an approved budget” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 251).
“The purpose of project quality management is to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 293).
“Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Human resource management includes all the project stakeholders: sponsors, customers, project team members, support staff, suppliers supporting the project and so on” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 345).
“The goal of project communications management is to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and disposition of project information” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 388).
“Project risk management is the art and science of identifying, analyzing, and responding to risk throughout the life of a project and in the best interest of meeting project objectives” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 425).
“Project procurement management includes the processes required to acquire goods and services for a project from outside the performing organization. Organizations can be either the buyer or the seller of products or services under a contract” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 471).
The most important factors in successful project execution are the processes used to complete the project. The project management process groups include initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. “Initiating processes include defining activities and authorizing a project or project phase” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 72).
“Planning processes include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that project address the organization’s needs. Normally there is no single project plan” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 72).
“Executing processes include coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and produce the products, services or results of the project or phase” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 72).
“Monitoring and controlling processes include regularly measuring and monitoring progress to ensure that the project team meets the project objectives. The project manager and staff monitor and measure progress against the plans and take corrective action when necessary” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 72).
“Closing processes include formalizing acceptance of the project or project phase and ending it efficiently. Administrative activities are often involved in this process group, such as archiving project files closing out contracts, documenting lesions learned and receiving formal acceptance of the delivered work as part of the phase or project” (Schwalbe, 2004, p. 72).
At every stage of the project management process some form of each project management knowledge area is used. Integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications, and risk and procurement are the benchmarks used to determine at any stage if the process is complete and has succeeded.
- Schwalbe, K. (2004). Information Technology Project Management Fourth Edition, Newton Square, PA: Thomson